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KEYS TO SOME COMMON GENERA OF MOULDS

GROUP III

1. Spores 1-celled 2


1. Spores with more than one cell 10







2. (1) Conidiophores united into complex synnemata with a sterile base and fertile upper part 3


2. Conidiophores solitary, never forming complex structures, sometimes not present 4







3. (2) Spores produced in a large colourless drop of fluid at the tip of the synnema

Graphium

Compare with Pesotum (not treated here)


3. Spores produced along the sides of the upper part of the synnema, dry, interspersed with loosely coiled hairs

Trichurus







4. (2) Spores produced in chains 5


4. Spores not produced in chains 6







5. (4) Spores brown, produced from a cluster of strongly swollen cells (phialides)

Memnoniella

(see Stachybotrys)


5. Spores usually grey, tan, or colourless, produced from clusters of bottle-shaped cells (annellides)

Scopulariopsis

Compare with Penicillium (Group I) and Scedosporium







6. (4) Spores produced in small clusters at several "nodes" along the length of erect conidiophores

Gonatobotrys


6. Spores apical or conidiophores not obviously well-developed 7







7. (6) Spores borne along the length of the hyphae from apparently undifferentiated cells or as thallic chains of disarticulating cells; colonies white to yellowish, moist and rather flat

Trichosporon


7. Spores produced at the apex of distinct conidiophores or phialides; colony appearance various 8







8. (7) Conidiophores small and inconspicuous, usually consisting of short cells or branches functioning as annellides; colonies often black and yeast-like; spores collecting in wet masses at the apex of the conidiophores, sometimes budding

Exophiala


8. Conidiophores large and conspicuous; colonies never yeast-like 9







9. (8) Conidiophores unbranched or rarely very simply so; spores arising from an apical cluster of swollen cells (phialides)

Stachybotrys


9. Conidiophores highly branched; spores borne from clusters of narrow cells (phialides), produced in a slimy mass

Gliocladium

Compare with Leptographium (Group V), Penicillium (Group I), and Scedosporium







10. (1) Spores dark brown, rather large, several-celled

Bipolaris

Compare with Pithomyces (Group IV) and Trichocladium (Group V)


10. Spores colourless; usually associated with eelworms. Anamorphs of Orbiliaceae go here 11







11. (10) Spores solitary at the tip of a long unbranched to weakly branched conidiophore

Orbilia

Species formerly referred to Arthrobotrys, Candelabrella, Dactylella, Geniculifera, and Monacrosporium also belong here.


11. Several spores on each conidiophore 12







12. (11) Spores produced along the length of an elongating and more or less zigzag conidiophore

Orbilia

Species formerly referred to Arthrobotrys, Candelabrella, Dactylella, Geniculifera, and Monacrosporium also belong here.


12. Conidiophores producing a series of short branches from a single locus (candelabrum-like), with each branch bearing a spore

Orbilia

Species formerly referred to Arthrobotrys, Candelabrella, Dactylella, Geniculifera, and Monacrosporium also belong here.

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