Essays >> Polypore key

ROY CAIN'S FIELD KEY TO POLYPORES


01. Basidiomata hard and woody when fresh, functional over several years and showing more than one layer of tubes or more than one year's growth when cut vertically down through the centre; these are mostly big "conks" found on large logs and trunks - 02

01. Basidiomata more or less annual and with only one layer of tubes - 14


02. Context and lower surface of basidiomata pinkish or reddish - Fomitopsis cajanderi

02. Context and lower surface of basidiomata not pink - 03


03. Context of of basidiomata white or light coloured, varying to buff or ochraceous - 04

03. Context of basidiomata distinctly dark in colour, often dark reddish brown - 08


04. Context very bitter to the taste - Fomitopsis officinalis

04. Context not bitter - 05


05. Tubes in very distinct layers as seen when the basidiomata are cut vertically through the centre - 06

05. Tubes not in distinct layers - 07


06. Pores angular; basidiomata white above; on hardwoods only, usually maple - Oxyporus populinus

06. Pores circular; basidiomata gray or red above; on either hardwoods or conifers - Fomitopsis pinicola


07. Growing only on living ash trees- Perenniporia fraxinophila

07. Growing on other hosts, living or dead - Fomitopsis pinicola


08. Always growing on living trees; basidiomata without a distinct upper crust - 09

08. Growing on dead trees; basidiomata sometimes with a distinct crust covering the softer tissues below - 11


09. Growing on conifers - Phellinus pini

09. Growing on hardwood trees - 10


10. Growing only on living locust trees (Robinia species) - Phellinus robineae

10. Growing on living oak trees - Phellinus everhartii


11. Upper surface of basidiomata covered with a hard crust, below which the context is softer - 12

11. Upper surface without a hard crust, but basidiomata hard and woody throughout - 13


12. Basidiomata hoof-shaped, the tubes 2.5 cm or more long, not in definite layers - Fomes fomentarius

12. Basidiomata not hoof-shaped, the tubes shorter and in very definite layers - Ganoderma applanatum


13. Tubes in definite annual layers as seen when the basidiomata are cut vertically through the centre; on birches only - Phellinus robustus

13. Tubes not in definite annual layers; often on other hosts - Phellinus igniarius


14. Lower surface with sinuous pores or with pores elongated in a radial direction, or with mushroom-like lamellae (gills); basidiomata never stipitate - 15

14. Lower surface with round, angular or tubular pores; basidiomata stipitate or not - 28


15. Context white or light coloured - 16

15. Context distinctly brown - 23


16. Growing on coniferous wood - 17

16. Growing only on hardwoods - 19


17. Pore surface purple to lilac, at least near the margin - Trichaptum abietinum

17. Pore surface white to cream - 18


18. Pores averaging about 2 to 3 per mm; mostly found on hardwoods but also on juniper - Antrodia albida

18. Pores averaging about 1 to 2 per mm; on dead standing conifers, rarely on hardwoods - Antrodia heteromorpha


19. Upper surface of basidiomata glabrous, zonate or not - 20

19. Upper surface of basidiomata distinctly pubescent and zonate - 21


20. Upper surface of basidiomata zonate - Daedaleopsis confragosa

20. Upper surface of basidiomata azonate; confined to oak and chestnut - Daedalea quercina


21. Pores greatly elongated and forming mushroom-like lamellae - Lenzites betulina

21. Pores round to sinuous, never forming lamellae - 22


22. Pores 3 to 4 per mm - Cerrena unicolor

22. Pores about 2 to 3 per mm - Antrodia albidus


23. Basidomata less than 1 cm thick - 24

23. Basidiomata more than 1 cm thick - 26


24. Upper surface of basidiomata pubescent; context rusty brown; only on conifer wood - Gloeophyllum sepiarium

24. Upper surface of basidiomata glabrous; context dull brown or paler, not rusty - 25


25. Upper surface of basidiomata scarcely zonate; context umber brown or paler; on both hardwoods and conifers - Gloeophyllum trabeum

25. Upper surface of basidiomata zonate; context scarcely brown; on hardwoods - Daedaleopsis confragosa


26. Growing only on conifers - Phellinus pini

26. Growing on hardwoods only - 27


27. Only on wood of oak and chestnut; pores 1 mm or more broad - Daedalea quercina

27. On a great variety of hardwoods; pores less than 1 mm broad - Daedaleopsis confragosa


28. Context pinkish, reddish, yellowish, yellowish brown or darker - 29

28. Context white, whitish, or pale wood-color - 51


29. Context decidedly pinkish, reddish, or yellowish - 30

29. Context yellowish brown or darker - 33


30. Pore surface deep red, pink or pinkish brown - 31

30. Pore surface not so brightly colored - 32


31. Pore surface deep red; on various hardwoods - Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

31. Pore surface pink or pinkish brown; on coniferous hosts; basidiomata corky - Fomitopsis cajanderi


32. Basidiomata fleshy, gelatinous on top - Fistulina hepatica

32. Basidiomata tough at maturity, not at all gelatinous - Hapalopilus croceus


33. Basidiomata with a more or less distinct stipe (stem) - 34

33. Basidiomata of the bracket type, without a stipe - 38


34. Growing on conifers - 35

34. Growing on hardwoods or in soil - 37


35. Inner substance of pileus of uniform consistancy, not forming two distinct layers - Phaeolus schweinitzii

35. Inner substance of pileus in two rather distinct layers, an upper soft and a lower more firm one - 36


36. Context of pileus up to 4 mm thick - Inonotus tomentosus

36. Context of pileus up to 10 mm thick - Onnia leporina


37. Pileus covered with a red varnish; laterally stipitate; on hardwoods - Ganoderma lucidum

37. Pileus not varnished; centrally stipitate; growing in soil and apparently not associated with wood - Coltricia perennis


38. Basidiomata red-varnished - Ganoderma lucidum

38. Basidiomata not red-varnished - 39


39. Growing on conifers - 40

39. Growing on hardwoods - 42


40. Basidiomata corky or leathery with upper surface glabrous - Fomitopsis cajanderi

40. Upper surface of basidiomata tomentose - 41


41. Basidiomata soft when fresh, brittle when dry; cystidia present but setae absent - Phaeolus schweinitzii

41. Basidiomata firm, never brittle; setae present - Onnia circinata


42. Basidiomata forming a more or less globose mass, with many small, closely overlapping pilei - Globifomes graveolens

42. Basidiomata solitary or with a few overlapping pilei - 43


43. Context very light brown in colour - Ischnoderma resinosum

43. Context yellowish brown or darker - 44


44. Basidiomata turning violet to red where touched with a KOH solution; context cinnamon - Hapalopilus nidulans

44. Basidiomata turning black where touched with a KOH solution; context darker - 45


45. Basidiomata less than 5 cm thick at their base - 46

45. Basidiomata more than 5 cm thick at their base - 49


46. Context usually less than 1 cm thick - 47

46. Context up to 2 cm thick - 48


47. Upper surface of basidiomata conspicuously zonate - Inonotus radiatus

47. Upper surface of basidiomata azonate or only faintly zonate - Inonotus cuticularis


48. Basidiomata with a central whitish-streaked core as seen when cut vertically through the center; without hymenial setae; on aspen - Inonotus rheades

48. Basidiomata without a central whitish-streaked core; hymenial setae present; on a variety of hardwoods, especially oak - Phellinus gilvus


49. Upper surface of basidiomata quite hairy - Inonotus hispidus

49. Upper surface not hairy - 50


50. Basidiomata with a central whitish-streaked core as seen when cut vertically through the centre; on trunks of living oak trees - Inonotus dryophilus

50. Basidiomata without a central core; found at the base of living oak trees or around stumps of recently felled trees - Inonotus dryadeus


51. Basidiomata with a more or less distinct, branched or unbranched stipe (stem) - 52

51. Basidiomata not stipitate - 65


52. Upper surface and stem covered with a reddish varnish - 53

52. Basidiomata not at all varnished, although sometimes reddish - 54


53. On coniferous wood only; context white - Ganoderma tsugae

53. On hardwoods only; context not pure white - Ganoderma lucidum


54. Stipe more or less branched, producing several or many pilei - 55

54. Stipe not branched and producing only one pileus, although the stipes of two or more may become confluent - 57


55. Pilei small (mainly less than 7 cm broad) and numerous - Grifola frondosa

55. Pilei few to several but larger (often 10 cm or more broad) - 56


56. Basidiomata becoming blackish where handled and on drying;spores smooth - Meripilus giganteus

56. Basidiomata not becoming blackish; spores rough - Bondarzewia berkeleyi


57. Pore surface bright sulphur-yellow in fresh plants - Laetiporus sulphureus

57. Pore surface not bright sulphur-yellow - 58


58. Pileus not more than 5 cm broad - 59

58. Pileus larger - 62


59. Pileus scaly, reddish; stipe (stem) poorly developed - Polyporus alveolaris

59. Pileus in browner shades; stipe well developed - 60


60. Pileus smoky-brown or smoky-black - Polyporus brumalis

60. Pileus tan in colour - 61


61. Stipe black at the base - Polyporus elegans

61. Stipe not black at the base - Polyporus arcularius


62. Growing on the ground, not associated with wood - Albatrellus ovinus

62. Growing on wood - 63


63. Pileus convex, the margin projecting downward below the level of the tubes; pallid to pale brown on top - Piptoporus betulinus

63. Pileus plane to depressed, without an overhanging margin - 64


64. Pileus pinkish-salmon or reddish when fresh - Laetiporus cincinnatus

64. Pileus chestnut-brown or darker, unchanged on drying - Polyporus badius


65. Basidiomata 1-3 cm diameter, almost globose; only on coniferous wood - Cryptoporus volvatus

65. Basidiomata not as above - 66


66. Found only on small dead limbs of elm; pure white in colour and bearing a small brownish cup-shaped body on the upper surface - Poronidulus conchifer

66. Not as above - 67


67. Margin of pileus projecting downward 5 mm or more beyond the pores; tubes separable in a smooth layer from the remainder of the basidiomata; found only on birch - Piptoporus betulinus

67. Basidiomata not as above - 68


68. Pore surface bright sulphur-yellow when fresh - Laetiporus sulphureus

68. Pore surface not sulphur-yellow, sometimes slightly yellowish on drying - 69


69. Basidiomata more or less entirely brown, blackish-brown, or rusty-brown in colour - 70

69. Basidiomata not uniformly brown in color - 72


70. Basidiomata very hairy on the upper surface; found only on willows and poplars - Coriolopsis gallica

70. Basidiomata not strongly hairy; usually on other hosts - 71


71. Basidiomata 10 cm or more broad - Ischnoderma resinosum

71. Basidiomata much smaller - Antrodia serialis


72. Pore surface more or less smoke-coloured or black - 73

72. Pore surface not blackish - 77


73. Basidiomata more than 5 mm thick - 74

73. Basidiomata less than 5 mm thick - 75


74. Pores 3 to 4 per mm; basidiomata lacking a distinctive odour - Bjerkandera fumosa

74. Pores 1 to 2 per mm; basidiomata with a pleasant odour of anise - Trametes suaveolens


75. Basidiomata scarcely hairy above, azonte - Bjerkandera adusta

75. Basidiomata decidedly hairy on the upper surface, usuallly distinctly zonate - 76


76. Upper surface of basidiomata marked with zones of contrasting colours - Trametes versicolor

76. Upper surface not with zones of different colors - Trametes hirsuta


77. Basidiomata fibrous or tough and leathery when fresh and soaking up to a similar condition - 78

77. Basidiomata either soft, spongy, and full of water, or else firm and corky when fresh - 92


78. Pores soon breaking up into teeth - 79

78. Pores little or not at all toothed - 86


79. Basidiomata less than 4 mm thick - 80

79. Basidiomata more than 4 mm thick - 84


80. Growing only on coniferous wood; pore surface with lilac to purple colours, at least when young - Trichaptum abietinum

80. Growing on hardwoods, less commonly on conifers; if on conifers pore surface not lilac to purple - 81


81. Basidiomata white and less than 1 cm from margin to point of attachment - Irpex lacteus

81. Basidiomata gray or otherwise coloured, and more than 1 cm from margin to point of attachment - 82


82. Upper surface of basidiomata strongly pubescent - Cerrena unicolor

82. Upper surface of basidiomata only thinly pubescent - 83


83. Pores 3-6 mm long -Trametes pubescens

83. Pores 1-3 mm long - Trichaptum biforme


84. Pores large, averaging 1-2 per mm - Trichaptum biforme

84. Pores smaller, averaging 3 to 4 per mm - 85


85. Upper surface conspicuously hairy and seldom white; pores grayish in age - Trametes hirsuta

85. Upper surface less hairy, pure white or with some light orange brown colours; pores yellow brown to ochre in age - Trametes pubescens


86. Growing only on coniferous wood; pore surface with lilac to purple colours, at least when young - Trichaptum abietinum

86. Growing on hardwoods, less commonly on conifers; if on conifers pore surface not lilac to purple - 87


87. Pores 3-7 mm long; pileus 1-2 cm thick; pore surface white to yellowish; on oak and chestnut; drying very hard - Fomitopsis spraguei

87. Basidiomata thinner; not as above - 88


88. Pore surface lavender, lilac, reddish or reddish-purple, at least near the margin of the basidiomata - 89

88. Pore surface with no lavender, lilac, reddish or reddish-purple colours - 90


89. Pore surface lavender or lilac at the margin of the basidiomata; upper surface not with narrow colored zones - Trichaptum biforme

89. Pore surface reddish to reddish-purple when fresh, and peeling off in a thin rubbery layer - Gloeoporus dichrous


90. Upper surface of basidiomata marked with many narrow and differently-colored zones - Trametes versicolor

90. Upper surface of basidiomata zonate but of a uniform colour - 91


91. Upper surface conspicuously hairy and seldom white; pores grayish in age - Trametes hirsuta

91. Upper surface less hairy, pure white or with some light orange brown colours; pores yellow brown to ochre in age - Trametes pubescens


92. Basidiomata corky in texture - 93

92. Basidiomata soft and spongy in texture when fresh - 98


93. Basidiomata more than 2 cm thick - 94

93. Basidiomata less than 2 cm thick - 95


94. Growing on willows and poplars; odour pleasant, anise-like - Trametes suaveolens

94. Growing mainly on locust; without an odour of anise - Perenniporia robiniophila


95. Pores small, averaging 4 to 6 per mm, often grayish - Bjerkandera fumosa

95. Pores larger - 96


96. Pores averaging about 1-2 per mm; on dead standing conifers, rarely on hardwoods - Antrodia heteromorpha

96. Pores smaller, averaging 2 to 3 per mm; mostly on hardwoods - 97


97. Basidiomata, including the pores, white; mostly found on hardwoods but also on juniper - Antrodia albidus

97. Basidiomata, including the pores, pale brown - Antrodia malicola


98. Pore surface immediately dirty-yellowish where bruised - Postia fragilis

98. Pore surface not so discoloring - 99


99. Basidiomata generally less than 4 cm long - 100

99. Basidiomata generally more than 4. cm long - 102


100. Pore surface definitely reddish coloured - Gloeoporus dichrous

100. Pore surface whitish or only slightly yellowish or bluish - 101


101. Basidiomata quite hairy on the upper surface - Postia caesia

101. Basidiomata not hairy - Tyromyces chioneus


102. Growing only on coniferous woods - 103

102. Growing only on hardwoods - 104


103. Tubes usually more than 5 mm long, the pores averaging 2 to 3 per mm - Climacocystis borealis

103. Tubes usually less than 5 mm long, the pores averaging 4 to 5 per mm - Postia guttulata


104. Pores averaging 0.5 to 2 per mm - 105

104. Pores averaging 3 to 5 per mm - 106


105. Tubes 1.5-3 cm long; only on oak - Spongipellis unicolor

105. Tubes 0.5-1.5 cm long; on various hardwoods - Spongipellis delectans


106. Growing only on oak and chestnut, drying very hard - Fomitopsis spraguei

106. Growing on other hosts; not drying hard - Spongipellis spumeus


Essays >> Polypore key